This paper describes a novel method for simulating soft tissue deformation with image-based rendering. It is based on the association of depth map with colour texture and the incorporation of micro-surface details to generate photo-realistic images representing soft tissue deformations. In a pre-processing step, the depth map describing the surface is separated into two distributions corresponding to macro- and micro-surface details. During user interactive simulation, deformation resulting from tissue-instrument interaction is rapidly calculated by modifying a coarse mass-spring model fitted to the macro-surface model. Micro-surface details are subsequently augmented to the modified model with 3D image warping. The proposed technique drastically reduces the polygonal count required to model the scene, whilst preserving deformed small surface details and offering a high level of photorealism.
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