In surgery, virtual and augmented reality are increasingly being used as new ways of training, preoperative planning, diagnosis and surgical navigation. Further development of virtual and augmented reality in medicine is moving towards photorealistic rendering and patient specific modeling, permitting high fidelity visual examination and user interaction. This coincides with the current development in Computer Vision and Graphics where image information is used directly to render novel views of a scene. These techniques require extensive use of geometric information about the scene and the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the underlying techniques required for building patient specific models with photorealstic rendering. It also highlights some of the opportunities that image based modeling and rendering techniques can offer in the context of minimally invasive surgery.
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